medicinal plants and aromatic character and very diverse uses in the area and by the local population (Baraka, 2008). Esta vez he podido dar con la especie. Its leaves are white-woolly below, hairless-green above, and deeply cut into two to five pairs of spiny lobes. by Simberloff, D. \Rejmanek, M.]. Thistles. http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/ipcw/pages/detailreport.cfm@usernumber=24&surveynumber=182.php, Cal-IPC (California Invasive Plant Council), 2004. Carduus species (Compositae) are widely distributed in the Mediterranean area, and traditionally used for both food and medicinal purposes.. Similarly in the countries to which it has been introduced and become naturalised it is invariably recorded as found in disturbed places where competition from other plants has been reduced, sometimes temporarily, although the causes of the disturbance may vary. Palmerston North, New Zealand: New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society, 89-92. In many of the countries where it has become naturalized it is regarded as a legally-defined noxious plant or pest plant, depending on the current terminology; it also causes problems in some countries where it is considered a native species. Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands [ed. Carduus Milk Thistle Cimicifuga Hydrastis Plant Weeds Plants, Genetically Modified Prunus Rosa Olea Cirsium Weevils Butterflies Moths Helianthus Insects. Australian Wool Testing Authority, 2002. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus) Click on images to enlarge Identify a weed List of all weeds Key to weeds in turf Italian thistle is a winter annual, and sometimes biennial, weed. Insects and fungi associated with Carduus thistles (Compositae).  It is a C-listed weed by the California Department of Agriculture and a Moderate Invasive Plant rating by the California Invasive Plant Council. Edmonds DK; Popay AI, 1983. The species occurs in similar places in New Zealand, where its populations in pastures fluctuate from year to year, along with those of other annual thistles. , Flower heads are 2-5 per cluster, densely matted with cobwebby hairs at the base of the phyllaries and spiny towards the tips. The effect of different pasture cultivars on barley grass invasion. A winter annual, Carduus pycnocephalus stems range from 8 inches (20 cm) to 6.6 feet (2.0 m), and are glabrous to slightly wooly. Carduus pycnocephalus L. (Asteraceae): Italian Thistle (Channel Islands National Park Service Species Literature Review). > 10°C, Cold average temp. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014. 1616. Notes on non-native Asteraceae in Texas. These become more attractive to goats after they start flowering, when goats preferentially eat the flower and seed heads; this limits seed production since most of the seeds are digested, with very few surviving passage through the gut (Harrington et al., 2011). http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/. However, as Harrington and Hewage (1997) discovered, this can lead to development of herbicide resistance which in turn adds extra costs and worries to the farmers. Similarly pasture or other seed brought onto the property should be of high quality and properly tested for contamination with weed seeds. Many of the habitats in which C. pycnocephalus occurs have already been disturbed by direct or indirect human activity so these thistles are unlikely to cause any additional damage, although they may delay recovery of the habitat to a less damaged state. In Australia, the Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Victoria (2014) report that seedlings establish preferentially on bare and disturbed sites such as stock yards, sheep camps, rabbit burrows and heavily grazed annual pastures. Annual or very rarely biennial, herbaceous, from a stout taproot; stems 15-200 cm tall, erect, glabrous to sparsely tomentose, narrowly and discontinuously winged, the wings spinose, tomentose, branched above the lower third, branches erect to ascending. A crown weevil (Trichosirocalus horridus [or Ceutorhynchus horridus]) has also been introduced to several countries as a biocontrol agent for thistle species and may be effective against C. pycnocephalus. University Press, 692 pp: //www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/ipcw/pages/detailreport.cfm @ usernumber=24 & surveynumber=182.php, cal-ipc ( California invasive Plant Council purple on... Also consumed in the desert lowlands which it was impossible to make way till the had... 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